Drives and Controls

The 5 automation trends in the packaging industry

Guest contributor: Hans Michael Krause, Bosch Rexroth

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i4.0 in practice: the 5 automation trends in the packaging industry

Next-generation packaging machines are being designed without control cabinets and are increasingly vertically and horizontally connected. Big data analyses, smart maintenance and model-based engineering have unleashed tremendous potential. But even conventional automation tasks can be handled more easily with open interfaces and integrated functions. What are the five major automation trends in detail?

What the packaging lines of tomorrow will be able to do

When I look at the highly dynamic packaging industry, I see four major challenges faced by machine builders: more individuality when it comes to packaging, more flexibility in terms of formats, higher availability and less space required for machines and lines. These challenges lead to five major trends in automation:

(1) Connected – the connectivity trend

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As a user, I need transparency, whether I want to improve system availability through smart maintenance, make my line more flexible, or optimize complex packaging processes. Without knowledge of subprocesses and plant conditions, I can’t analyze anything – neither on premise nor via the cloud. Modern automation technology and sensor systems now provide all the necessary data. I have to retrofit existing systems, but preferably without the need for programming or intervention in the automation. The IoT gateway fulfills this requirement extremely elegantly and can be set up in just five minutes. Machine builders can also opt for Starter Kit, which includes the Software Production Performance Manager (PPM), for a complete analysis platform from a single source.

The sweet side of Industry 4.0

There is also enormous potential in cross-vendor and system-wide networking via IIoT protocols such as MQTT or the open i4.0 standard OPC UA. At interpack, four machine builders and Bosch Rexroth will showcase the “ChoConnect” project as an exciting example of authentic M2M communication: Four locally distributed exhibition machines from LÖSCH Verpackungstechnik, SOLLICH, THEEGARTEN-PACTEC and WINKLER and DÜNNEBIER Süsswaren exchange information as a virtual production line for chocolate products using OPC UA in accordance with the Weihenstephan standard and create an end-to-end transparent value chain at the shopfloor level – without the need for an MES or control system. The individual steps of mass processing, molding, primary and secondary packaging automatically adjust performance according to individual capacities. The production process becomes more flexible; system efficiency increases.

Merging of automation, IT and IIoT

The fact that inflexible line PLCs will soon be obsolete is also a consequence of a merging of automation, IT and IIoT. With open interfaces such as Open Core Interface, ERP systems can be directly linked to machine automation, simplifying inventory management for machine components. Obviously, there must be also be a security strategy for regulating access to the control system.

(2) Simple – Make it simple!

The current trend towards fewer personnel per line has increased the need for intuitive control units such as HMI with multi-touch. Transparent and seamless visualization solutions are required – on the production line itself and at other locations in the company – in order to continuously improve processes and respond quickly when necessary. The ActiveCockpit interactive communication platform shows that such solutions are already available today.

Companies often need the ability to easily integrate new machines or lines into existing systems – this can already be done mechanically using standardized chain conveyor systems such as VarioFlow plus in combination with the MTpro planning tool. In the future, open M2M interfaces will allow for easy electrical integration.

With the growing need to simplify diagnostics and maintenance, we will see even more web-based service tools and innovative LED concepts at machines in the future. Augmented and virtual reality are sure to play a part here, too. It has been repeatedly demonstrated at trade shows how the digital twin integrates itself into the real picture using open interfaces so that complex technical relationships can be visualized and understood more quickly. A product orientation module for beverage packages by WestRock will be showcased at interpack.

(3) Efficient – end-to-end digital engineering

Ever more complex design needs and shorter time-to-market requirements are fueling the demand for model-based engineering with simulations and virtual commissioning. As a technology partner with industry expertise, Open Core Engineering not only ensures seamless integration of the machine control with simulation platforms such as MATLAB/Simulink or 3DEXPERIENCE by Dassault Systèmes. For immediate creation of a digital twin that can be simultaneously used by mechanics, electricians and software programmers, Bosch Rexroth delivers digital behavior models of its automation products as standard.

Bosch Rexroth also provides a comprehensive library of prepared technology functions along with the machine control. By emphasizing parameterizing instead of programming, flow wrappers, secondary packaging systems, fillers or sealing machines can be commissioned more quickly. Integrated standard kinematics and functions for delta, parallel and palletizing robots are also available. Object-oriented PLC programming and high-level languages, such as Java and C++, facilitate creation of the machine control software. The controllers feature a web server for easy integration of Internet technologies such as visualization using HTML5. Of course, standardized programming templates support the creation of machine programs following OMAC/PackML standards as well as the Weihenstephan standard and PLCopen.

(4) Adaptive – the adaptivity trend

What if the packaging line automatically adjusted the product stream in the event of a fault, instead of jamming and displaying a lot of error messages? Prefabricated software functions such as intelligent infeeds or product grouping are already available, even for these trend-setting M2M scenarios. For the use of robots and flexible transport system a separate controller is not needed anymore. These are managed by the standard machine controller, and the number of interfaces and the effort required to use transport systems or robotics are reduced.

In view of increasingly complex packaging processes, there is also a need for machines to automatically adjust to their environment. Machines require Smart Sensor Nodes with MEM technology like XDK in order to “learn” from their current state. Virtual sensors like servo motors and drives, including the intelligent MS2N servo motor, provide useful information.

Last but not least, next-generation packaging machines automatically adjust to the current format and regulate process speed as well as product handling. Adaptive software functions have also been developed for this scenario of the future. The spectrum ranges from flexible electronic cams in the machine control (FlexProfile), drive functions such as auto-tuning and anti-vibration to frequency response measurements and innovative filter functions for minimizing resonance frequencies in mechanical parts.

(5) Cabinet-free – much more than just space saving

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This trend in packaging is not just about saving space in the automation technology, machine footprint and control cabinet space. Instead, it’s about a modular machine configuration that allows machine operators and customers to respond flexibly to different requirements. The individual modules are connected to one another only by a single hybrid cable and can be easily integrated into the machine or retrofitted later. This reduces the installation area and increases servo density in favor of greater flexibility. Installation space, cabling and maintenance costs are also reduced. Such modular approaches are especially useful for secondary packaging and rotary machines such as filling and capping machines as well as retrofit projects.

Solutions for these packaging trends are already available. Use them now!

Manufacturers and users of packaging machines already have numerous options for boosting their competitiveness through intelligent and connected automation solutions. But to achieve this, they need an industry-oriented, expert partner with a broad ecosystem of solutions. At interpack 2017, Bosch Rexroth will give visitors the opportunity to experience the trade show theme of “Connected Automation i4.0 now live in all of its facets – including modern networking, simple design, model-based engineering and groundbreaking service. The future of automation has already begun and is ready for “installation” in the latest generation of packaging machines. Now!

 

cropped-cmafh-logo-with-tagline-caps.pngCMA/Flodyne/Hydradyne is an authorized Bosch Rexroth distributor in Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa and Northern Indiana.

In addition to distribution, we design and fabricate complete engineered systems, including hydraulic power units, electrical control panels, pneumatic panels & aluminum framing. Our advanced components and system solutions are found in a wide variety of industrial applications such as wind energy, solar energy, process control and more.

Decentralized Control Systems to the Rescue

Guest contributor,  Bob White, Kollmorgen

Less Cabling, Smaller controls cabinet, Less heat…wow, that’s all great stuff.  I can achieve this all with a decentralized solution? Absolutely – and even more! 

Decentralized Control Architecture means shifting the motion control drives from the crowded cabinets, and moving them near to the motors – out on the machine where the action is.  Immediately you can see that this can reduce the size of the controls cabinet, moving all of those drives out onto the machine – but how do I see these other advantages?

Decentralized ArchitectureIt’s not JUST about moving the drives out onto the machine, near or integrated with the motors, but also how you design your entire control system.  Think about a conventional Centralized Control Architecture – all of your drives, power supplies and other I/O are jammed into a large cabinet and cables are run to each motor – and since we are talking conventional, this likely means multiple cables (power and feedback for each motor). So in a decentralized solution, the motor, feedback and fieldbus communication needs to be run through a single cable, and the control architecture  allows communications to function over the fieldbus loop.

So thinking about it that way, with an 8 axis machine – Control cabinet 5 meters from the initial motor, and subsequent axes 3 meters apart – this adds up quickly to almost 250 meters of cabling (Power and Feedback) using a centralized approach.

Centralized vs Decentralized ImageImagine now – A decentralized solution, drives located within a meter of the motor they are driving – you cut cabling down to a mere 35 meters!  Do the math – an 86% reduction!  Throw in extended I/O and your savings jumps to almost 90%  SO – Point 1 – Substantially reduced cables cost – not just from the mere reduction in cable length, but in reduced costs associated form cable management trays and even the labor to run the cables.

But there’s more (or do I mean less).  Smaller cabinet, less electronics, means less heat to dissipate – electronics usually don’t like the heat, so they tend to get some cool air, provided by some nice air conditioning system.  Less heat, less need for an expensive air conditioning unit, AND less energy consumption.

One other element not so readily apparent with a good decentralized design – flexibility!  Designing with a decentralized drive architecture in mind from the start opens up new possibilities.  This allows more flexibility in modularization.  We’ll cover this modularization concept in a follow on blog topic next time…

All of these advantages help the OEM build a more efficient machine, with less components, reduction in assembly time, and more flexibility in design – improving the marketability of the machine.  End users enjoy the lower cost of ownership and increase reliability – and potentially space savings on their factory floor.

Decentralized Machine Vision

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CMA/Flodyne/Hydradyne is an authorized  Kollmorgen distributor in Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa and Northern Indiana.In addition to distribution, we design and fabricate complete engineered systems, including hydraulic power units, electrical control panels, pneumatic panels & aluminum framing. Our advanced components and system solutions are found in a wide variety of industrial applications such as wind energy, solar energy, process control and more.

Five trends that support intelligent linear motion technology in practice

Guest contributor; Dr. Steffen Haack, Bosch Rexroth AG

When it comes to progress in linear motion technology, one thing is immediately clear: linear guides and systems move increasingly larger loads more regularly and with increasingly higher positioning accuracy and repeatability. Anyone with an understanding of the interplay between the drive technologies will know the potential resulting from it.

Through a combination of electrics, sensors and software, linear motion technology makes a crucial contribution for integrated factory. Here are the five trends that support intelligent linear motion technology in practice:

Figure 1: Modularization and flexibilityBild1

Ready-to-install electromechanical cylinders combine mechanics with the flexibility of electric drives. A software command to the electric drive and the cylinder move them to any position and carry out complicated movement profiles. Without an additional position measuring system, they can achieve repeatability of up to ± 0.01 mm. Load measuring pins transmit the values analogously to the electric drive or the control and enable a decentralized process management.

Figure 2: Functional integration reduces complexityA006_C010_0101XP

If the precision requirements are high but the environment conditions are rough, conventional measuring systems soon reach their limits. Absolute measuring systems integrated into ball rail and roller rail systems detect the absolute position of the axis with a resolution of 0.025 μm. They immediately recognize the absolute position of the axis when the machine is switched on and report it to the controller without carrying out a reference run. In addition, modern systems do not require buffer batteries that need to be replaced regularly.

Figure 3: Predictive maintenance increases availabilityA008_C023_0101C0

Sensors measure temperature peaks and vibrations. This data forms the basis for future approaches to predictive maintenance. However, it is only significant if it is compared with life cycle models. In load tests, the newly developed runner blocks have demonstrated twice the service life through increased load capacities with the same size. Together with the detected operating conditions and predictive maintenance, they significantly increase the availability of machines and systems.

Figure 4: Digitally supported commissioningBild4

Previously, an experienced technician could easily have spent twenty minutes commissioning a linear axis. With the new mechatronic linear axes and actuators, the commissioning takes only three to five minutes. A digital assistant supports the application engineer with this. The technician only has to enter a few pieces of axis-specific data and can then immediately program or parameterize the drive. In the future, this functionality will automatically be available via the QR code.

Figure 5: Digital engineering for secure and quick dimensioningBild5

More and more engineering departments are changing to integrated digital workflows. With selection guides or sizing tools, design engineers find the correct linear motion technology components and mechatronic systems through intuitive user guidance, which can even be application-specifically configured. The electronically generated data are then integrated directly into the digital construction model and enables the virtual simulation of complex machine movements, for example.

Do you have questions about this post?  Please contact us:


ABOUT US

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CMA/Flodyne/Hydradyne is an authorized  Bosch Rexroth distributor in Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa and Northern Indiana.

In addition to distribution, we design and fabricate complete engineered systems, including hydraulic power units, electrical control panels, pneumatic panels & aluminum framing. Our advanced components and system solutions are found in a wide variety of industrial applications such as wind energy, solar energy, process control and more.

 

Why Rexroth? Top Four Reasons to Choose Rexroth Drives & Controls

Todd Sharp, Motion Control Sales Manager, CMA/Flodyne/Hydradyne

CMA/Flodyne/Hydradyne is a leader in the design and commission of drive and control
systems for our customers for over 30 years, and one question that we often hear is “Why is Rexroth the best?”  There are many brands competing for the drive and control market, and here at CMAFH, we have working experience with most if not all of them. Our engineers program,  repair and upgrade many of the brands of control systems, and we have the ability to integrate any brand into our custom projects at our customer’s request. Having specialized in Bosch Rexroth products for many years, we understand the unique strengths of the product line.

Rexroth drives and controls can be differentiated from competing brands in four very distinct ways.

1. Product Breadth

The IndraDrive product family spans the power range from 100W to 4MW. This product family can operate as an open loop frequency drive/sensor less vector drive up to a multi-axis integrated motion and logic controller that can be either stand alone or drive resident. The IndraDrive product family also includes a cabinet free drive integrated motor. This entire IndraDrive product family is supported by the same software.Indradrive 2016 13187

  • Power range from 100W to 4MW
  • Range of technology from open loop V/F and sensor-less vector control to multi-axis integrated motion and logic control
  •  Integrated motion and logic control – controller or drive resident
  •  Cabinet free drive integrated motor

2. Connectivity

Rexroth’s drive and control platform supports all common communication buses including Ethernet I/P, EtherCAT, Profinet, SERCOS, CANopen, Powerlink, Profibus.
We can control 3rd party motors regardless of brand or type, and we can operate all common feedback types including TTL, 1vpp, Endat, Hiperface, SSI, resolver. Our drives are available with a 2nd encoder input with a 1MHZ input frequency. Our control supports all common machine programming languages like ladder, FB, ST, IL… plus all common IT and engineering languages like C#, C++, Java, Labview, Matlab.

  • Supports all common communication buses including, Ethernet I/P, EtherCAT, ProfiNet, SERCOS, CANopen, Keyvisual_inkl_Logos_w486Powerlink, Profibus
  • Controls all 3rd party motors regardless of brand or technology type
  • Operates all common feedback types (TTL, 1vpp, ENDAT, Hiperface, SSI, resolver) with drive based second encoder input with up to 1MHZ input frequency
  • Supports all common machine programming languages (ladder, FB, structured text, instruction list) plus all common IT and engineering type languages like C#, C++, Java, Labview, Matlab

3. Functionality

Whether it’s drive or controller based, Rexroth offers multi-zone tension control, vibration dampening/anti-slosh control, high speed registration control, advanced electronic camming and hydraulic control. We also support zoned safety control with safe torque off and full safe motion; controller or drive based. Yes, drive based safe motion control!

  • PMK2801_02R_WEBMulti -zone tension control
  • Vibration dampening/anti-slosh control
  • High speed registration control
  • Advanced electronic camming
  • Supports all common hydraulic functions
  • Integrated safe torque off and safe motion control

 

4. Support

Rexroth designs, engineers and manufactures all products they sell. All are standard and sold throughout the world. In the US, hundreds of local high-tech distributors are Rexroth trained and certified to provide full sales, service and application support.  Additionally, Rexroth maintains sales, service and application support facilities in every region of the US, plus scores more globally.

  •  All products are standard and sold throughout the world
  • Bosch Rexroth maintains sales, service and application support facilities in every region of the US and scores more globally
  • In the US hundreds of local high-tech distributors are Rexroth trained and certified to provide additional sales, service and application support

Bosch Rexroth_2012

Do you have questions about this post?  Please contact us:

About CMA/Flodyne/Hydradyne

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CMA/Flodyne/Hydradyne is an authorized  Bosch Rexroth distributor in Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa and Northern Indiana.

In addition to distribution, we design and fabricate complete engineered systems, including hydraulic power units, electrical control panels, pneumatic panels & aluminum framing. Our advanced components and system solutions are found in a wide variety of industrial applications such as wind energy, solar energy, process control and more.

Resources:

Engineered Systems Capabilities

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Rexroth Drives & Controls Training

Press productivity improves with controller upgrade

Guest contributor: Richard Meyerhoefer, Delta Computer Systems

Fastener stamping machine output triples after tuning the motion with a solution from Delta Computer Systems.

Improving the productivity of a manufacturing process by speeding up the operation of an old machine can be very difficult, driving plant managers to purchase new equipment. It’s often possible, however, to replace the control system, maintaining the old mechanics, and get the performance of a new machine for much lower cost. Hydraulics distributor CMA/Flodyne/Hydradyne (CMAFH) of Hanover Park, Illinois, recently assisted in such an upgrade for a manufacturer of fastening components. The machine was a press used to imprint patterns on the surface of metal fasteners with a punch that fits into the bottom of a 4″ bore hydraulic cylinder (Figure 1). As the punch comes down it reshapes the top of the fastener and its edges to provide a locking feature.

Motion controller selection

Figure 1. Diagram showing motion controller connections in the fastener press machine

In the past, the manufacturer used a programmable logic controller (PLC) to operate a two-position, bang-bang valve to drive the cylinder, but company engineers found imprecise results that limited production to around 60-to-70 parts per minute. As a result, the company moved to a proportional valve and closed-loop controller that operated the valve based on cylinder position/acceleration. The controller would open the valve quickly and then back off the valve as the cylinder got closer to making contact with the fastener. This method enabled an increase in production to approximately 140 parts per minute. But to meet competitive pressures, company managers demanded the rate be increased, driving the need for a new electro-hydraulic motion controller.

Company engineers called CMAFH, with whom they had worked on automation solutions for more than 20 years, to recommend a new controller for the company’s old bang-bang machine.

Hooking up the controller

The Delta RMC75E motion controller (Figure 2), recommended by CMAFH engineering manager Norman Dziedzic, accurately controls position and force, to control acceleration with more precision than the closed-loop controller previously used. Dziedzic programmed the motion controller to move the cylinder to a predetermined position while monitoring the force being applied by the punch. When the force reaches a particular value, the controller is switched to force control mode to ensure that adequate force is ultimately applied to the fastener. The old closed-loop control system used position control only, with some input from a load cell within the tool to verify that a certain minimum force was applied to the part.

“The Delta controller operates similar to that, but is easier to control,” says Richard Mellor, engineer at the fastener company. Every motion step made by the other controller was initiated by the PLC, and there was lag time in passing position information. “The beauty of the Delta controller is that the motion program now resides in the controller,” Mellor adds.

Now, the PLC just does overall machine control, triggering the Delta RMC to press the part at the appropriate time. When the pressing operation is complete, the Delta controller knows, based on the position and force ranges inputted to the controller, whether the pressed part is a good part or a bad one, and notifies the PLC. The Delta RMC75E gets cylinder position feedback from a linear magnetostrictive displacement transducer (LMDT) via a synchronous serial interface (SSI) to the controller. To measure force, the system uses a fatigue-rated (rugged) force transducer (shown in Figure 1).

Programming, tuning

Figure 2.  The Delta RMC75E motion controller can control up to two motion axes simultaneously

Dziedzic set up the motion program initially, and he fine-tuned the loop parameters working with a fastener company engineer. The two also developed the code to implement quality testing of the finished parts.

“I find the Delta very easy to program, but I have 30 years in as a controls engineer. If you’ve had anything to do with PLC or message display packages, it’s relatively intuitive to find your way around,” Mellor says

For tuning the motion, Dziedzic relied heavily on Delta Computer Systems’ Plot Manager software, which allows an engineer to view multiple key motion parameters versus time on a single graph (Figure 3). The plot shows three press cycles, where the red curve is the actual position of the press cylinder, the blue curve is the actual velocity of the cylinder, and the force being applied by the die to the work piece is shown by the black line. The cyan line is the target cylinder position. When the motion system is perfectly tuned, the actual cylinder position curve overlaps the target position, indicating that any positioning error caused by the mechanical aspects of the system – for example, the compressibility of the fluid or the friction of the moving parts – has been compensated for by the control algorithm. In Figure 3, the flat yellow line indicates the command force which must be applied to the part to make the press operation successful. The circle marked A highlights the point in time when the actual position (red line) begins to deviate from the target position (cyan line) as the tool comes into contact with the part. This is also when the force (black line) begins to climb. Then, at point B, the change in actual velocity (blue curve) shows force control taking over from position control. Area C in the plot shows when the actual force meets the target command force to signal a successful operation. Area D shows harmless motion transients that are caused by retracting the cylinder quickly to prepare for pressing the next part.

Using the Plot Manager, motion characteristics that occur too quickly to be visible to the naked eye can be analyzed and corrected if necessary, enabling the manufacturing process to be accelerated.

Results

Figure 3.  Delta’s RMCTools plot Manager software shows axis position and force versus time, enabling precise tuning of the motion.

One of the fastener company’s other key requirements on the controller upgrade project was to provide a means of accessing process data using the controller in order to do a pass/fail test on the finished parts.

“We track final position reached and maximum force achieved,” Dziedzic says. Previously, the company needed an external analog device to do this. Now, the Delta RMC75E eliminates this need by making process parameters available for the PLC to read directly over Ethernet. “The fact that the Delta controller can do this in addition to controlling the cylinder provides a huge benefit to them.”

“We have been very happy with the performance increase we have gotten with the Delta motion controller,” Mellor adds. “Even if we hadn’t gotten the performance, Delta’s ease of use in system setup and tuning would have made the difference.”

With the Delta RMC75E controlling the operation of the cylinder, the machine can now process up to 180 fasteners per minute.

“We can move faster because we have more control over the proportional valve, yielding tighter control loops and better control of the gain in the system,” Mellor says.

Another advantage of using the Delta RMC is operation repeatability; the controller is able to control the force exerted in each cycle to a tolerance of ±40 lb out of 10,000 lb applied.

ABOUT US

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CMA/Flodyne/Hydradyne is an authorized  Delta Computer Systems distributor in Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa and Northern Indiana.

In addition to distribution, we design and fabricate complete engineered systems, including hydraulic power units, electrical control panels, pneumatic panels & aluminum framing. Our advanced components and system solutions are found in a wide variety of industrial applications such as wind energy, solar energy, process control and more.

Nine steps to the proper drive

Guest contributor, Bosch Rexroth

A fully structured approach, well-founded knowledge of the formulae and a fundamental understanding of the technology are essential to designing drives. These are the prerequisites for perfect matching of the machine and the drive.18089-x734_w734

Drive engineering is undertaken when the machine is initially designed, and also when the requirements for the machine have changed or a retrofit is due. Leaving excess tolerances – either upward or downward – is counterproductive for the design. If the drive is under-dimensioned, then the machine will not achieve the desired performance level and, in the worst case, the drive will have to be changed out for a more powerful one. That involves major outlays. The procurement costs will rise and because of poor efficiency, the life-cycle costs will increase. But what does designing a drive mean? It means laying out the motor’s torque curve so that it ideally matches the needs of the machine being served.

Technical understanding is a prerequisite

Software can provide assistance when calculating and planning the drive. It can save time, for example, when several versions have to be analyzed. With the help of the IndraSize engineering tool made by Rexroth, users can select IndraDyn motors and IndraDrive drives simply by entering parameters. But in spite of this support, the technician or engineer has to bring with him or her a fundamental understanding of the technology involved. Technical understanding will allow critical magnitudes to be taken into account so that  we will recognize how the drive might be optimized. Whether with software support or without – the calculations for the proper drive can be carried out in nine clear steps.

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Electric Drives & Controls Product Catalog: http://www.boschrexroth.com/dcc/Vornavigation/VorNavi.cfm?PageID=g97568

Rexroth IndraSize – Turbo for Drive Sizing:  https://www.boschrexroth.com/en/xc/products/product-support/econfigurators-and-tools/indrasize/indrasize-2