Safety

Safely Switch Off Cylinders While Transmitting Field Data

Guest contributor: Matthias Wolfer, Balluff

 

Is it possible to safely switch off cylinders while simultaneously transmitting field data and set up the system in accordance with standards? Yes!

In order to rule out a safety-critical fault between adjacent printed circuit board tracks/contact points (short circuit) according to DIN EN ISO 13849, clearance and creepage distances must be considered. One way to eliminate faults is to provide galvanic isolation by not interconnecting safety-relevant circuits/segments. This means  charge carriers from one segment cannot switch over to the other, and the separation makes it possible to connect the safety world with automation — with IO-Link. Safely switching off actuators and simultaneously collecting sensor signals reliably via IO-Link is possible with just one module. To further benefit from IO-Link and ensure safety at the same time, Balluff’s I/O module is galvanically isolated with a sensor and an actuator segment. The two circuits of the segments are not interconnected, and the actuator segment can be safely switched off without affecting the sensors. Important sensor data can still be monitoring and communicated.

The topological structure and the application of this safety function is shown in this figure as an example:

2D-SAGT-Betriebsanleitung_v2

  1. A PLC is connected to an IO-Link master module via a fieldbus system.
  2. The IO-Link master is the interface to all I/O modules (IO-Link sensor/actuator hubs) or other devices, such as IO-Link sensors. The IO-Link communication takes place via a standardized M12 connector.|
  3. Binary switching elements can be connected to the galvanically isolated sensor/actuator hub (BNI IOL-355). The four connection ports on the left correspond to the sensor segment and the four ports on the right correspond to the actuator segment. Communication of the states is done via IO-Link.
  4. The power supply for both segments takes place via a 7/8″ connection, whereby attention must be paid to potential separated routing of the sensor and actuator circuits. Both the power supply unit itself and the wiring to the IO-Link device with the two segments must also ensure external galvanic isolation. This is made possible by separating the lines with a splitter.
  5. An external safety device is required to safely interrupt the supply voltage of the actuator segment (four ports simultaneously). Thus, the module can implement safety functions up to SIL2 according to EN62061/PLd and ISO 13849.

For example, this can happen through the use of a safety relay, whereby the power supply is safely disconnected after actuation of peripheral safety devices (such as emergency stops and door switches). At the same time, the sensor segment remains active and can provide important information from the field devices.

The module can handle up to eight digital inputs and outputs. If the IO-Link connection is interrupted, the outputs assume predefined states that are retained until the IO-Link connection is restored. Once the connection is restored, this unique state of the machine can be used to continue production directly without a reference run.

An application example for the interaction of sensors and actuators in a safety environment is the pneumatic clamping device of a workpiece holder. The position feedback of the cylinders is collected by the sensor segment, while at the same time the actuator segment can be switched off safely via its separately switchable safety circuit. If the sensor side is not required for application-related reasons, galvanically isolated IO-Link modules are also available with only actuator segments (BNI IOL 252/256). An isolated shutdown can protect up to two safety areas separately.

cropped-cmafh-logo-with-tagline-caps.pngCMA/Flodyne/Hydradyne is an authorized  Balluff distributor in Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa and Northern Indiana.

In addition to distribution, we design and fabricate complete engineered systems, including hydraulic power units, electrical control panels, pneumatic panels & aluminum framing. Our advanced components and system solutions are found in a wide variety of industrial applications such as wind energy, solar energy, process control and more.

Safety Over IO-Link Helps Enable Human-Robot Collaboration

Guest Contributor: Tom Knauer, Balluff

Safety Over IO-Link makes it easier to align a robot’s restricted and safeguarded spaces, simplifies creation of more dynamic safety zones and allows creation of “layers” of sensors around a robot work area.

For the past several years, “collaboration” has been a hot topic in robotics.  The idea is that humans and robots can work closely together, in a safe and productive manner.  Changes in technology and standards have created the environment for this close cooperation. These standards call out four collaborative modes of operation: Power & Force Limiting, Hand Guiding, Safety Rated Monitored Stop, and Speed & Separation Monitoring (these are defined in ISO/TS 15066).

Power & Force Limiting

Power & Force Limiting is what many people refer to when speaking about Collaborative Robots, and it applies to robots such as Baxter from Rethink Robotics and the UR series made by Universal Robots.  While the growth in this segment has been fast, there are projections that traditional robots will continue to make up 2/3 of the market through 2025, which means that many users will want to improve their traditional robot solutions to “collaborate”.

Hand Guiding

Hand guiding is the least commonly applied mode, it is used for very specific applications such as power assist (one example is loading spare tires into a new car). It generally requires special equipment mounted on the robot to facilitate the guiding function.

Safety Rated Monitored Stop and Speed & Separation Monitoring

Safety Rated Monitored Stop and Speed & Separation Monitoring are especially interesting for traditional robots, and require safety sensors and controls to be implemented.  Customers wanting closer human-robot collaboration using traditional robots will need devices such as safety laser scanners, safety position sensors, safety PLCs and even safety networks – this is where Safety Over IO-Link can enable collaborative applications.

SAfety

Many of IO-Link’s well-known features also provide advantages for traditional robot builders and users:

1) Faster & cheaper integration/startup through reduction in cabling, standardized connectors/cables/sensors and device parameterization.

2) Better connection between sensors and controllers supports robot supplier implementation of IIoT and improved collaboration by making it easier to gather process, device and event data – this allows improved productivity/uptime, better troubleshooting, safer machines, preventative maintenance, etc.

3) Easier alignment of the robot’s restricted and safeguarded spaces, simplifying creation of more dynamic safety zones to support closer human-robot collaboration.

The third item is especially relevant in enabling collaborative operation of traditional robots.  The updated standards allow the creation of a “shared workspace” for the robot and human, and how they interact in this space depends on the collaborative mode.  At a simple level, Safety Rated Monitored Stop and Speed & Separation Monitoringrequire this “shared workspace” to be monitored, this is generally accomplished using a “restricted space” and a “safeguarded space.”  These “spaces” must be monitored using many sensors, both inside and outside the robot.

First, the robot’s “restricted space” is set up to limit the robot’s motion to a specific 3-dimensional volume.  In the past, this was set up through hard stops, limit switches or sensors, more recently the ANSI RIA R15.06 robot standard was updated to allow this to be done in software through safety-rated soft axis and space limiting.  Most robot suppliers offer a software tool such as “Safe Move” or Dual Check Safety” to allow the robot to monitor its own position and confirm it is where it is supposed to be.  This feature requires safe position feedback and many sensors built into the robot.  This space can change dynamically with the robot’s program, allowing more flexibility to safely move the robot and assure its location.

Second, a safeguarded space must be defined and monitored.  This is monitored using safety rated sensors to track the position of people and equipment around the robot and send stop (and in some cases warning) signals to the safety controller and robot.  Safety Over IO-Link helps connect and manage the safety devices, and quickly send their signals to the control system.

In the past, integrating a robot with safety meant wiring many safety sensors with long cable runs and many terminations back to a central cabinet.  This was a time consuming, labor intensive process with risk of miswiring or broken cables.  IO-Link significantly reduces the cost, speed and length of connections due to use of standard cables and connectors, and the network approach.  It is also much simpler for customers to change their layout using the network, master & hub approach.

Customers wanting collaborative capability in traditional robots will find that Safety Over IO-Link can significantly simplify and reduce the cost of the process of integrating the many advanced safety sensors into the application.

To learn more, visit www.balluff.com.

cropped-cmafh-logo-with-tagline-caps.pngCMA/Flodyne/Hydradyne is an authorized  Balluff distributor in Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa and Northern Indiana.

In addition to distribution, we design and fabricate complete engineered systems, including hydraulic power units, electrical control panels, pneumatic panels & aluminum framing. Our advanced components and system solutions are found in a wide variety of industrial applications such as wind energy, solar energy, process control and more.

Changing the Paradigm from Safety vs. Productivity to Safety & Productivity

Guest Contributor: Tom Knauer, Balluff

In a previous blog, we discussed how “Safety Over IO-Link Helps Enable Human-Robot Collaboration”. It was a fairly narrow discussion of collaborative robot modes and how sensors and networks can make it easier to implement these modes and applications. This new blog takes a broader look at the critical role safety plays in the intersection between the machine and the user.

In the past, the machine guarding philosophy was to completely separate the human from the machine or robot.  Unfortunately, this resulted in the paradigm of “safety vs. productivity” — you either had safety or productivity, but you couldn’t have both. This paradigm is now shifting to “safety & productivity”, driven by a combination of updated standards and new technologies which allow closer human-machine interaction and new modes of collaborative operation.

Tom_Safety1.pngThe typical machine/robot guarding scheme of the past used fences or hard guards to separate the human from the machine.  Doors were controlled with safety interlock switches, which required the machine to stop on access, such as to load/unload parts or to perform maintenance or service, and this reduced productivity.  It was also not 100% effective because workers inside a machine area or work cell might not be detected if another worker restarted the stopped machine.  Other drawbacks included the cost of space, guarding, installation, and difficultly changing the work cell layout once hard guarding had been installed.

We’ve now come to an era when our technology and standards allow improved human access to the machine and robot cell.  We’re starting to think about the human working near or even with the machine/robot. The robot and machinery standards have undergone several changes in recent years and now allow new modes of operation.  These have combined with new safety technologies to create a wave of robot and automation suppliers offering new robots, controllers, safety and other accessories.

Standards
Machine and robot safety standards have undergone rapid change in recent years. Standard IEC 61508, and the related machinery standards EN/ISO 13849-1 and EN/IEC 62061, take a functional approach to safety and define new safety performance levels. This means they focus more on the functions needed to reduce each risk and the level of performance required for each function, and less on selection of safety components. These standards helped define, and made it simpler and more beneficial, to apply safety PLCs and advanced safety components. There have also been developments in standards related to safe motion (61800-5-2) which now allow more flexible modes of motion under closely controlled conditions. And the robot standards (10218, ANSI RIA 15.06, TS15066) have made major advances to allow safety-rated soft axes, space limiting and collaborative modes of operation.

Technology
On the technology side, innovations in sensors, controllers and drives have changed the way humans interact with machines and enabled much closer, more coordinated and safer operation. Advanced sensors, such as safety laser scanners and 3D safety cameras, allow creation of work cells with zones, which makes it possible for an operator to be allowed in one zone while the robot performs tasks in a different zone nearby. Controllers now integrate PLC, safety, motion control and other functions, allowing fast and precise control of the process. And drives/motion systems now operate in various modes which can limit speed, torque, direction, etc. in certain modes or if someone is detected nearby.

Sensors and Networks
The monitoring of these robots, machines and “spaces” requires many standard and safety sensors, both inside and outside the machine or robot. But having a lot of sensors does not necessarily allow the shift from “productivity vs. safety” to “productivity & safety” — this requires a closely coordinated and integrated system, including the ability to monitor and link the “restricted space” and “safeguarded space.” This is where field busses and device-level networks can enable tight integration of devices with the control system. IO-Link masters and Safety Over IO-Link hubs allow the connection of a large number of devices to higher level field busses (ProfiNet/ProfiSafe) with effortless device connection using off-the-shelf, non-shielded cables and connectors.

Balluff offers a wide range of solutions for robot and machine monitoring, including a broad safety device portfolio which includes safety light curtains, safety switches, inductive safety sensors, an emergency stop device and a safety hub. Our sensors and networks support the shift to include safety without sacrificing productivity.

To learn more about Safety over IO-Link, visit www.balluff.com

cropped-cmafh-logo-with-tagline-caps.pngCMA/Flodyne/Hydradyne is an authorized  Balluff distributor in Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa and Northern Indiana.

In addition to distribution, we design and fabricate complete engineered systems, including hydraulic power units, electrical control panels, pneumatic panels & aluminum framing. Our advanced components and system solutions are found in a wide variety of industrial applications such as wind energy, solar energy, process control and more.

What Exactly is Safety Over IO-Link?

Automation Pyramid.png

This integrated safety concept is the logical continuation of the IO-Link philosophy. It is the only globally available technology to build on the proven IO-Link standards and profisafe. This means it uses the essential IO-Link benefits such as simple data transport and information exchange, high flexibility and universal applicability for safety signals as well. Safety over IO-Link combines automation and safety and represents efficient safety concepts in one system. Best of all, the functionality of the overall system remains unchanged. Safety is provided nearly as an add-on.

In the center of this safety concept is the new safety hub, which is connected to an available port on an IO-Link master. The safety components are connected to it using M12 standard cable. The safety profisafe signals are then tunneled to the controller through an IO-Link master. This has the advantage of allowing existing infrastructure to still be used without any changes. Parameters are configured centrally through the user interface of the controller.

Safety Hub

The safety hub has four 2-channel safe inputs for collecting safety signals, two safe outputs for turning off safety actuators, and two multi-channel ports for connecting things like safety interlocks which require both input and output signals to be processed simultaneously. The system is TÜV- and PNO-certified and can be used up to PLe/SIL 3. Safety components from all manufacturers can be connected to the safe I/O module.

Like IO-Link in general, Safety over IO-Link is characterized by simple system construction, time-and cost-saving wiring using M12 connectors, reduction in control cabinet volume and leaner system concepts. Virtually any network topology can be simply scaled with Safety over IO-Link, whereby the relative share of automation and safety can be varied as desired. Safety over IO-Link also means unlimited flexibility. Thanks to varying port configuration and simple configuration systems, it can be changed even at the last minute. All of this helps reduce costs. Additional savings come from the simple duplication of (PLC-) projects, prewiring of machine segments and short downtimes made possible by ease of component replacement.

Development of IO-Link, number of sold nodes.png

To learn more about Safety over IO-Link, visit www.balluff.com

cropped-cmafh-logo-with-tagline-caps.pngCMA/Flodyne/Hydradyne is an authorized  Balluff distributor in Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa and Northern Indiana.

In addition to distribution, we design and fabricate complete engineered systems, including hydraulic power units, electrical control panels, pneumatic panels & aluminum framing. Our advanced components and system solutions are found in a wide variety of industrial applications such as wind energy, solar energy, process control and more.

Improving Arc Flash Prevention and Safety

Guest contributor: Steve Sullivan, Rittal

Working among the electrical components in an enclosure comes with inherent risks. The power in any one enclosure can range from 2kw up to 200kw depending on the power density. One of the most common and dangerous risk is an arc flash (or flashover).

When an explosive release of energy erupts from a phase-to-phase or phase-to-ground arc fault the results range from devastating to deadly. This air to ground electrical explosion is a critical concern for engineers and managers who are charged with the safety of their employees.

The Destructive Force of an Arc Flash

The dangers from an arc flash are all too well known. Five to 10 of these accidents occur every day in the United States. When metal expands and vaporizes at the fault, it causes extreme heating of the air, upwards of 10,000°C/18,032°F. The concussive pressure wave can knock personnel off their feet, the ultraviolet light flash can cause blindness, the sound blast, deafness and the molten metal and heat can cause second and third degree burns. The specific death toll has been estimated to be up to 1-2 people per day worldwide.

An arc flash can be the result of unsafe work procedures, accidental contact or more systemic problems such as corrosion of components and connections or insulation failure. Arc flash prevention should be incorporated into any application from the beginning of the design process.

Minimizing Arc Flash Exposure

Design and retrofit approaches can limit exposure by using components installed outside the enclosure to permit qualified personnel in personal protective equipment (PPE) to service equipment inside without opening the enclosure door. Interface flaps and window kits permit data retrieval, equipment monitoring or routine maintenance to be performed from outside. Collapsible fold down shelves be raised for use with laptops and monitoring equipment. External data pockets can hold wiring diagrams, operation manuals and other documents.

Rittal and Arc Flash Protection

Sometimes components must be accessed from inside the enclosure. Rittal’s arc flash solution is designed to keep high and low voltage equipment within the confines of their own respective enclosures. Low voltage enclosures house equipment that is used for programming, data acquisition and system adjustment.

High voltage components are isolated within their own disconnect enclosure, while line side power is segregated within the power isolation enclosure. A partition wall acts as a barrier to high voltage line side power. Rittal’s interlocking door system ensures that the high voltage enclosure cannot be opened while the disconnect switch is in “ON” position.

For additional safety, all interlocked doors and master door must be closed in order to re-energize the enclosure. This removes potential for accidental contact with the inline power when the disconnect enclosure is put in a safe power-off position, and locked and tagged out.

Minimizing exposure to line side power can help protect personnel from accidents. A qualified person wearing PPE and following appropriate safe work practices can perform visual inspections and tasks, such as diagnosis, testing, troubleshooting and voltage measurement with the door open even when the main enclosure is energized.

Rittal offers an unlimited choice of low-voltage and high-voltage enclosure combinations. More important than saving down time caused by having to power down the whole system to service, the Rittal arc flash solution helps to decrease the risk personnel being exposed to arc flash-related injuries.

Safety is always your priority, so download Rittal’s Arc Flash and How to Prevent it whitepaper for the first step towards arc flash prevention.

About Us

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CMA/Flodyne/Hydradyne is an authorized  Rittal distributor in Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa and Northern Indiana.

In addition to distribution, we design and fabricate complete engineered systems, including hydraulic power units, electrical control panels, pneumatic panels & aluminum framing. Our advanced components and system solutions are found in a wide variety of industrial applications such as wind energy, solar energy, process control and more.